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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2017
Volume 2 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-35

Online since Thursday, September 7, 2017

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Smile characteristics in orthodontics: A concept review Highly accessed article p. 1
Priya Kallidass, S Srinivas, Anila Charles, D Davis, NC Sushil Charravarthi
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_13_17  
It is important for orthodontists to make every effort to develop a harmonious balance that will produce the most attractive smile possible for each patient treated. A smile usually translates a common man emotional intelligence and expresses his feeling in a unique fashion Thus, he seeks the orthodontist to improve the esthetics and especially the smile. The success of smile design is determined by the patient's profile and the orthodontist's esthetic goals and skill so as to re-establish patients' expectations. This article enlights the overview few characteristics for a balanced smile.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Perception of orthodontics p. 5
M Ketaki Kamath, AV Arun
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_16_16  
Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the factors that influence the desire for orthodontic treatment among outpatients of Saveetha Dental College. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared and handed out to 100 random outpatients of Saveetha Dental College. The questionnaire contained four questions, of which the last one pertained to the reason for not undergoing orthodontic treatment. Results: Of 100 people, 23% were not aware of the treatment options available, 16% were not interested, 14% felt they did not have time to spare, 14% said they would start treatment soon, 11% felt they could not afford the treatment, 9% were satisfied with their appearance and did not feel the need to undergo any treatments, 5% had fear of dentists, 4% had a fear of pain, 3% felt they were too old to start any treatment now, and 1% felt it would cause discomfort while eating. Conclusion: From the above study, it can be concluded that lack of awareness is the main factor that keeps people away from undergoing orthodontic treatment. Self-perception of orthodontic treatment motivated only a small percentage of the study population.
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A questionnaire survey of dental students' attitude toward denture cleansing p. 8
M Namrata
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_12_16  
Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the dental students' attitude and preference toward denture cleansing methods using a questionnaire survey. Materials and Methods: This survey was conducted on 200 undergraduate dental students of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of questions regarding students' opinions, viewpoints, and recommendations about denture cleansing routines. Results: A total of 200 students studying in final year and interns were reviewed in this study. About 78% of students felt denture hygiene is important to maintain esthetics and longevity of the denture. In the present study, 63% of the patients recommended mechanical method, 35% combination, and 2% chemical method. Regarding the frequency of denture cleansing, 40% of students recommended denture cleansing more than thrice a day, 37% recommended twice a day, and 23% once a day. This study reveals only 10% of students were aware of commercially available brands of cleansers in the market, 3% were aware of side effects, and only 2% were aware of recent advanced methods of denture cleansing. Conclusion: Despite having theoretical knowledge, most of students do not give importance to proper denture hygiene maintenance in patients. As dental professional students must take responsibility for their patients' health even after treatment, students should update themselves about new materials available in the market to create the denture hygiene practice efficient among the patients.
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Efficacy of Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) membranes in the healing of apico-marginal defects: A prospective, controlled clinical trial p. 11
Rakesh Rohilla, Sanjay Tewari, Abhishek Singh Nayyar
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_8_16  
Background: There is still inadequate information available regarding the role of GTR techniques in such lesions with the presently available data suggesting that there is a possibility of healing of apico-marginal defects without use of GTR technique by using modern microsurgical procedures. Fewer randomized-clinical trials have evaluated the response of GTR membranes in the treatment of apico-marginal defects. Aim: The present prospective, controlled clinical trial was, therefore, planned to evaluate the role of collagen membrane as GTR material in the healing of apico-marginal defects. Subjects and Methods: Thirty patients meeting inclusion criteria were selected and allocated randomly to either the GTR membrane group or, the control group. Clinical and radiographic examination was done after one week for baseline measurements and then, during follow-ups at regular intervals of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the procedure. The criteria for success included the absence of clinical signs and symptoms and signs of radiographic healing. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis of the ordinal data was carried-out by using non-parametric methods. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for the unpaired and paired data respectively. Chi-square test was used to evaluate dichotomous data. Results: Significant reductions were observed in the periodontal pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival margin position (GMP) and the size of the peri-apical lesion at 12-month follow-up (P < 0.05) in each treatment group except gingival margin position (GMP) in the GTR membrane group with the corresponding P value being 0.059. The results for the reduction in the size of the peri-apical lesion were, also, found to be statistically significant with the corresponding P value being <0.05. Furthermore, 83.33% of the patients showed complete healing in case of GTR membrane group while the same was found to be 90.9% in case of the control group although the difference in the percentage reduction in the size of the peri-apical lesion at different time intervals after surgery was found to be statistically insignificant between the two groups. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that there might not be any additional clinical advantage obtained from GTR membrane barriers in the surgical management of isolated apico-marginal defects of primary endodontic origin with absent or, minimal proximal bone loss.
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Abuse of self-medication for orodental problems among populace in rural areas of central India p. 18
Maneesha Das, Harsha Puri, N Lakshmana, M. V. R. Ratnam, Sweta Gandhi, Rahul A Gandhi, Abhishek Singh Nayyar
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_2_16  
Context: The practice of self-medication has been recognized since ages. There has been enough literature available regarding it being there for medical illnesses; however, there is a relative dearth of information about it being there for orodental causes. The present study was planned to determine the abuse of self-medication for orodental causes and the reasons for resorting to it. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in rural areas of Central India with 230 consenting participants selected by random sampling and interviewed with the aid of an 18-point, closed-ended question-based, semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Nearly 63.59% of the participants admitted they had resorted to self-medication without any consultation. Odontalgia was the most common reason, for which people resorted to self-medication (57.69%). Seventy percent of the participants did not have the knowledge about the dose, duration, adverse drug reactions, and interactions of drugs with other drugs they had been using. Paracetamol was the most commonly abused drug for self-medication. Conclusion: Analgesics were the most common drugs abused for self-medication. Adequate health education of the populace was found mandatory to make people aware of the use and misuse of drugs and regarding the potential adverse effects and drug interactions they might have led to, especially, when used repeatedly or on a chronic basis. Furthermore, dental health-care services were supposed to be made more readily available and affordable so that self-medication among populace in rural areas could be checked effectively.
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The incidence of types of mandibular third molar impactions in different skeletal face types: A clinical study p. 24
Arshiya Shehanaz
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_11_16  
Introduction: It is seen that the failure of mandibular third molars to erupt is most affected by a lack of space in the alveolar arch between the distal of the second molar and the ascending ramus. Therefore, an appreciation of mandibular and facial growth may assist in predicting mandibular third molar eruption. Aim: The reason for this study is to appreciate the growth of mandible and facial growth which may assist in predicting mandibular third molar eruption as the lack of space in the alveolar arch between the distal of the second molar and the ascending ramus has been associated with failure of mandibular third molars to erupt. Materials and Methods: A list of patients who had visited the outpatient department at the Saveetha Dental Hospital of Chennai in April and May 2016 were sourced. The facial type determined by the facial index is calculated using an equation where; (i) Brachyfacial: Smaller than 80.0%–84.9%, (ii) Mesofacial: 85.0%–89.9%, (iii) Dolichofacial: 90.0%–95% or greater. Results: The incidence of horizontal impactionwas higher in dolichofacial patients when compared to people with mesofacial profile. The incidence of mesioangular impaction was seen to be higher in mesofacial patients. Conclusion: In this study the classification of impaction describes only the impaction status at the time of taking the radiograph, and not the potential final status of the third molar. Further research may be done to assess whether the changes in impaction status are more likely to be seen in dolichofacial or brachyfacial subjects.
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Awareness on oral disorders in diabetes mellitus among general population in Chennai p. 28
Gayathri Devi Kumaresan, M Subha
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_17_16  
Objective: To evaluate the awareness on oral manifestation of diabetes in general population in Chennai. Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM), according to the World Health Organization is a silent epidemic which affects large number of people around the world and is directly related to the oral health status of the patients. DM is a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies due to disturbances of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. It is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, and it is associated with oral disorders, cardiovascular, and renal complications. These complications result in diminished quality of life and reduced life expectancy. Although dental caries was comparatively low in diabetics, periodontal status was compromised. Awareness on diabetes and increase risk of oral disorders in diabetic patient is comparatively less than awareness on systemic diseases in general population. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate awareness and educate them by reinforcing the importance of oral health care in diabetes. Methodology: A total of 159 self-completion questionnaires were distributed to assess the main objectives of the study. Results: The awareness of public toward increased risk for oral diseases in diabetes is low compared to their awareness of systemic diseases. On average, only 41.8% people is aware of an oral complication of DM, which is very low and 58.2% of population is unaware of a complication of DM. Conclusion: People were found to have little knowledge on oral manifestation of DM. To promote proper oral health and to reduce the risk of oral diseases, health professionals in both the dental and medical fields need to take the responsibility to develop programs to educate the public about the oral manifestations of diabetes and its complications on oral health.
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CASE REPORT Top

Ocular defect rehabilitation using digital photography p. 32
Ankita Chamaria, Meena Aras, Vidya Chitre, Prem Bhushan
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_5_17  
Surgical intervention for the management of ocular disorders may lead to eye defects. The primary objective in rehabilitating such defects with an ocular prosthesis is to reestablish the physical and mental well-being of the patient. A series of detailed steps for custom-made ocular prosthesis fabrication using the advantages of digital photography are presented in this article. The iris reproduction by capturing it in a digital camera and editing the image in graphic software is presented. The presented technique replicates the natural iris without the need for iris painting and special artistic skills in a short time and simplified manner.
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