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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2017
Volume 2 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 37-60

Online since Thursday, February 1, 2018

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Light cure devices p. 37
M Namrata, Dhanraj Ganapathy
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_17_17  
With the invention of light-cured resin materials used in bonding and restorations, the use of light cure units has become an integral part of dentistry. There is a vast change in the curing devices over the last 30 years. At present, the following types of light-curing devices are available – Quartz-tungsten-halogen, light-emitting diode, plasma arc curing, and Argon laser. This review is primarily focused on discussing the types and limitation of each type of light cure units and also maintenance of light cure units to optimize their use.
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CAD-CAM and all ceramic restorations, current trends and emerging technologies: A review p. 40
S Venu Gopal
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_16_17  
All-ceramic restorations have revolutionized the concept of esthetics in the practice of dentistry. The increasing use of polycrystalline alumina and zirconia as framework materials and the increasing popularity and variety of CAD-CAM systems seem to be mutually accelerating trends. In fact, CAD-CAM technology opens-up new vistas for increased esthetics. With ever emerging developments, it becomes more versatile and convenient. However, this comes at the expense of making the application more complicated. The present review gives an overview on the different materials available in ceramics used in dental CAD/CAM technology.
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Merkel cells: A review on role of merkel cells in histology and disease p. 45
Nandhini G Ashok, Abilasha Ramasubramanian
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_26_17  
The basic objective of this review is to understand the role of Merkel cells (MCs). MCs are neuroendocrine cells present in the epidermis of basal layers of vertebrates. The origin of MCs is controversial. They act as mechanoreceptors. MC carcinoma is known to be aggravating primary cutaneous neoplasm. Diagnosis of this is based on their staining. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are given for such patients.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

A survey of knowledge, attitude, and practice toward disclosing agents among dental students: A prospective study p. 48
M Namrata, Nandhini G Ashok, Dhanraj Ganapathy
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_23_17  
Aim: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice toward disclosing solution among dental students using a questionnaire survey. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted among 200 undergraduate dental students. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of questions regarding students opinions, viewpoints, and recommendations about disclosing agents. Results: About 80% of the students were aware of the indications for disclosing agents; however, when asked about the types of disclosing agents available, only 27% of the students were aware. Regarding the methods of using disclosing agents, only 21% of students had knowledge about it. Majority of students were not aware of the commercially available brands (90%), recent advances (97), and side effects (98%) of disclosing agents. In this study, it was found that 33% of students were aware of importance of using disclosing agents at home and in dental practice, and 10% of students prescribed it while the majority of students (90%) failed to do so. Conclusion: Despite having theoretical knowledge, most of students do not give importance to use of disclosing agents in proper oral hygiene maintenance in patients. As dental professionals, students must take responsibility of their patient's health even after treatment. Students should update themselves about new materials available in the market to create the oral hygiene practice efficient among the patients.
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Evaluation of upper lip elevation to the ideal lip height in the students of a dental college p. 51
Nandhini G Ashok, Dhanraj Ganapathy
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_25_17  
Aim: The aim of this research is to compare the lip elevation to the normal lip height. Background: Lip elevation is one of the eight parameters of a balanced smile the others being lip line, smile arc, upper lip curvature, lateral negative space, smile symmetry, and frontal occlusal plane. Materials and Methods: Sixty (30 males and 30 females) individuals were included in the study and were divided into 2 age groups. The age groups were between 15–20 and 21–25 years. These age groups were selected because studies show that 90% of patients reporting for orthodontic treatment are in this age group range. Two measurements were taken including (i) relaxed upper lip length and (ii) smiling external upper lip length. Results: The mean total lip elevation while smiling in males is 4.1 mm and for females was 4.9 mm. Maximum lip elevation was seen in the age group of 20–25 years in both males and females. The results are significant for both males and females across all measured age groups. To evaluate the lip elevation as for a balanced smile. Conclusion: As public awareness of esthetic dental treatment increases patient seeks to enhance and resolve several common concerns to achieve a good smile. Orthodontic case in which occlusion meets every criterion of American Board of Orthodontics for a successful treatment may not produce an esthetic smile. Thus, the goal of a clinician is to create not only an admired look but also the ability to harmonize with hard and soft tissues.
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Study of root canal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors in an Indian subpopulation p. 54
M Ramya Chellammal
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_15_16  
Aim: The aim was to examine root canal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors in an Indian subpopulation using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: CBCT images of 150 patients with 100 healthy permanent mandibular incisors were evaluated. According to Vertucci's classification, teeth were examined to determine the number of roots, number of canals, and canal configurations. The effects of gender and age on the incidence of root canal morphology were investigated. Results: Of permanent mandibular incisors, 71.64% had a single root with single canal. Mandibular lateral incisors (10.45%) had a higher incidence of the second canal compared with mandibular central incisors (8.34%). A slightly higher percentage of incidence of a second canal was found in males (10%) than in females (5%). Vertucci type I (68.5%) was most common followed by type IV (0.62%) which was the least common. Conclusion: The prevalence of the second canal in mandibular incisors was high but within the range of previous studies performed on different populations. CBCT imaging is an excellent method for detection of different canal configurations of mandibular incisors.
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A study of association between depression and self-esteem among dental students of Udaipur p. 57
Nilesh Bhanawat, Vijay Maheshwari, Gunjan Joshi, Parshad Dhaduk, Arshdeep Singh, Ramandeep Singh Gambhir, Harkiranjot Kahlon
DOI:10.4103/ijofr.ijofr_15_17  
Background: Depression is a strong mood involving sadness, discouragement, despair, or hopelessness that lasts for weeks, months, or even longer and tends to have negative and self-critical thoughts. The purpose of the present study was to explain the correlation between depression and self-esteem among dental students of Udaipur. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fourteen students participated in the study. Self-esteem was estimated using Rosenberg method using 4-point Likert scale format ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Beck depression inventory is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory and was used for measuring the severity of depression with a 4-point scale ranging on severity. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate means. T-test and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean scores of depression and self-esteem were found to be 9.11 ± 10.11and 20.11 ± 5.17, respectively, and a negative correlation was found between depression and self-esteem (r = −0.38). The mean score of self-esteem of male participants was higher, i.e., 22.24 ± 5.16 and the mean depression score was lesser, i.e., 10.12 ± 7.82 and the findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: The present research suggests that low self-esteem and depression have strong negative correlation. Improving self-esteem reduces risk of depression regardless of whether the individual is enduring stressful or nonstressful life experiences.
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